Coronary artery stenting
Coronary angioplasty also called percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or balloon angioplasty is designed to restore the blood flow in the narrowed by atherosclerotic plaque or blood clots coronary arteries.
When you arrive to the hospital the intravenous line will be started, you will be placed on the heart monitors and you will be given an oral or intravenous sedatives to help you relax.
Most coronary angioplasty procedures last between 30 minutes and 3 hours. The doctor numbs the skin in your groin and insert the needle in to your femoral artery. Once the needle is placed a guide wire is passed through the needle and gently guided to the arterial system to the heart. The needle will be withdrawn and exchanged for small flexible tube called the sheath permitting access to your femoral artery. At this point you will be given the anticoagulants to decrease risk of blood clots. Next, a soft flexible catheter is slept over the wire and pushed up to the heart. The procedure is monitored using continues X-ray imaging device, called fluoroscope. You may feel pressure as the catheter in sheath and inserting into the groin and pushed in the artery. But you will not feel the movement inside of your arteries. At this point your doctor will remove the guide wire, position the tip of the catheter just inside of the coronary artery to be treated and inject the special dye. The dye allows fluoroscope to take X-ray images called angiograms of the arteries' interior. Any blockages will be clearly identified when the artery is the filled with the dye.
You may feel flashed or slightly noisily when the dye is injected.
Once the blockages identified your doctor will insert a flexible guide wire into the artery and advance a balloon tip catheter over this wire into the position at the site of the blockage. Rapid inflation and deflation of the small balloon pushes the vessel wall out reestablishing blood flow to the artery.
You may feel some chest pain when it is happening. The same procedures repeating for each blockage being treated.
After procedure finished your doctor will withdraw the deflated balloon and catheter from your artery.
Some patients will receive a coronary stent which is a small tube made of wire mesh designed to open artery. A collapsed stent is placed over the deflated balloon. Together they are moved into the position. When a balloon inflated the stent expands and locks in the place.
After the balloon and catheter withdrawn the stents remain in the artery to hold it open permanently.
After your procedure a pressure banding will be applied over the femoral artery to prevent bleeding.
You will need lie on your back for several hours during which time you will be checked periodically for any signs of bleeding or chest pain. You may be discharged to home on the same day or after overnight stay in the hospital.